Urdu Learning

Urdu is an Indo-European language which originated in India, most likely in the vicinity of Delhi from where it spread to the rest of the subcontinent. Urdu along with Hindi forming the Hindustani language is the second most popular 'first' language and second most popular 'first or second' language in the world. Urdu by itself is the twentieth most popular 'first' language in the world. It developed from the interaction between local Indian Sanskrit-derived Prakrits and the Persian languages. This process took place mostly in military camps, and word Urdu means "army" or "horde" in Turkish.

       It soon became the language of the Mughals, distinguished linguistically from local languages by
       its large and extensive Persian-Arabic vocabulary superimposed on a native Hindi base of
       grammar, usages and vocabulary. The result was what has been considered by some to be
       one of the world's most beautiful languages, the "Kohinoor" ("Mountain of Light," a famed native,
       large and brilliant diamond) of India. It is widely spoken today in both India and Pakistan and all
       countries having a sizeable South Asian Diaspora.


       History

       There are different views on the origins of Urdu, differing in both time and geographic location.
       Urdu may have originated anywhere in India: the Deccan, in Punjab, in Sindh or in the neighborhood
       of Delhi. These hypothesis are backed by Urdu literature having been found in these areas as far back
       as the period of the Delhi Sultanate. Keeping in mind the linguistic character of the areas around Delhi,
       it is said that Urdu originated in or around Delhi over a period of a few centuries.

       A continuous progression is seen in linguistic development from Sanskrit to the modern languages of
       Northern India, though there is a strong link between the Prakritic language 'Hindvi' of the middle ages
       and Urdu of today. The works of Amir Khusrau are intelligible to the speakers of Urdu and Hindi, even
       though they were written in the 14th century. It is hypothesized that Urdu developed when a regular
       and slow stream of Persian and Arabic words were infused into the language Hindvi. Urdu has been
       known by a host of names during this seven century long interval: Hindvi, Hindi
       (not to be confused with modern Hindi), Rekhta, Shahjahani, Deccani and Urdu-e-Mualla. There is some
       debate as to whether all of them represent the same language, but the majority of experts agree that
       these are names of the language known today as Urdu.

       Although the language originated near Delhi, it was in the Deccan that it first gained acceptance.
       The rulers of the Deccan were supportive of local languages, opposing the Persian influence in northern India.
       In the Deccan, the court became the centre for the development of Urdu, and the initial poetry
       and literature in Urdu comes from there. The idea of using Urdu rather than Persian as the media
       of poetry and literature eventually spread to the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent.

       After the mainstream acceptance of Urdu as a poetic language in North India, a large number of poets
       began writing in it. Great poets such as Mir, Sauda, Ghalib, Zauq and Haali made the language acceptable
       as a literary medium. The increasing quantity of poetry and literature caused the language to
       become more uniform and less volatile than it had been in the past.

 
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